First Pages
text
article
2013
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Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
1
3
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54694_68f2feae42a9343a8819416379c53d85.pdf
Al-Ṭūsī’s Recension Method in Comparison to the Maghribī’s Recension of Theodosius’ Sphaerica
Masoumeh
Amirimoqaddam
M.Sc. History of Science, Institute for the History of Science, University of Tehran
author
text
article
2013
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This article examines al-Ṭūsī’s and Maghribī’s recensions of Theodosius’ Sphaerica by comparing their features and differences. Al-Ṭūsī adheresto the original text of Sphaerica, however, by adding some postulates and three lemmas, he enriches the mathematical structure of the treatise. Al-Ṭūsī’s composition style reveals that he intended to prepare a pedagogical textbook, his statements are concise and precise and he presents demonstrations for all the theorems. Several manuscripts of al-Ṭūsī’s recension are extant, one of which has been transcribed before his death. The only other extant recension of Sphaerica belongs to Muḥyeddīn Maghribī. Maghribī changes the style of the original text by merging some theorems, changing the demonstrations and modifying the diagrams. Although he inserts some additional lemmas into the text, he leaves some simple proofs incomplete. One of the extant manuscripts of Maghribī’s recension has been transcribed prior to his death. In sum, we can say that Ṭūsī’s recension enriches the mathematical content of the treatise, whereas Maghribī’s recension includes some superfluous and superficial changes and lacks the mathematical force of Ṭūsī’s recension.
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
1
30
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54687_d64ff2887eb1c209de6efa4f431e963b.pdf
Spherical Interpretation of Plane Geometry in Menelaus of Alexandria’s Sphaerica
Hasan
Amini
Ph.D. in Philosophy of Science, Iranian Institute of Philosophy, Tehran
author
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article
2013
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Menelaus’ Sphaerica can be considered as the most important classical text in the tradition of spherics books, written with the aim of the solution of problems arising in spherical astonomy. Euclid’s Elements is the the most important book on plane geometry. This article aims at a comparative study of Menelaus’s Sphaerica and Euclid’s Elements, to show that Book I of Sphaerica is an attempt to reconstruct Book I of the Elements for the case of spherical figures. We mention Menelaus’ achievements as well as the limits of his project. The topic of the congruent triangles is treated with special reference to the differences which exist between the plane and the spherical cases. We also show that the spherical counterpart of Euclid’s important theorm on the sum of the interior angles of a triangle (Euclid, I/32) has been put forward, for the first part, by Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī in his Recension of Menelaus’s Sphaerica.
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
31
46
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54688_b3f08dbd7b6aab03db7c5607bf28df95.pdf
Dār al-Funūn and its Role in Modern Military Training in Nāṣirī Peroiod in Iran
Akbar
Fallahi
Ph.D. Student of the History of Science in Islamic Period, Institute for the Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran
author
Gholamhossein
Rahimi
Professor, Department of Mechanics, Tarbiat Modares Univeersity, Tehran
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2013
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Dār al-Funūn is the first center for systematic modern science education and new military training in Iran. As far as the military disciplines are concerned, theoretical and practical training of the steudents, as well as troops and officers, authoring and translating books on military disciplines, regular examinations and upbringing a generation of students in new military tactics are the most important achievements of this school. The pinnacle of success and effectiveness of Dārulfunūn was the first few years after its establishment (1268-1276 AH) and then the school entered a period of decline. In this paper, we try to sudy on the new military training in Dārulfunūn in Nāṣir al-Dīn Shāh’s era (Nāṣirī era): the methods of teaching, the teachers, educational programs, students, authors and translators of military books are the most important issues discussed in this study.
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
47
74
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54689_fc9d4656f113b8458c0c55fbddc1e506.pdf
The place of Rāzī’s Treatise on Substiute Drugs in the Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Tradition of the Islamic Period
Younes
Karamati
Associate Professor, Institue for History of Science, University of Tehran
author
text
article
2013
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سابقۀ توجه پزشکان و داروشناسان به اِبدال(جایگزینی) یک داروی ساده با دارویی دیگر دست کم به سدۀ یکم میلادی و اشارات پراکندۀ دیوسکوریدس در ماتریا مدیکا (در متون دورۀ اسلامی: هیولی الطب یا الحشائش) بازمیگردد. اما کهنترین سیاههای که از داروهای قابل جایگزینی با یکدیگر به دست آمده، فصل بیست و پنجم از کُنّاش پاولوس آیگینایی (بولس اجانیطی) است که در میانۀ سده هفتم میلادی و بر اساس دیدگاههای جالینوس (129- ح216م) پدید آمده است. گویا پزشکان دورۀ اسلامی توجه بیشتری به موضوع ابدال ادویه داشتهاند و تکنگاریهایی نیز در این باره نوشتند. از این میان روایتی عربی منسوب به داروشناسی به نام بدیغورس و رسالۀ ابدال رازی تأثیری چشمگیر بر تقریباً همۀ آثار داروشناسی دورۀ اسلامی، از اواخر سدۀ 3 تا سدۀ 12ق داشتهاند و البته رسالۀ رازی به نوبۀ خود سخت تحت تأثیر رسالۀ بدیغورس بوده است. اهمیت ذاتی و تاریخی این رساله، ضرورت پرداختن به جایگاه این رساله در سنت داروشناسی و داروسازی دورۀ اسلامی را آشکار میسازد
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
75
121
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54690_7f4eb722836304472edd4cfc032bcece.pdf
Shikārnāmeh-ye Malikshāhī and its importance in Historigraphy of Science
Amin
Mojellizadeh
Department of language and persian litrature, Faculty of Humanitites, Najafabad Branch, Azad Islamic Univesity, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran
author
Mehdi
Nourian
Department of language and persian litrature, Faculty of Humanitites, Najafabad Branch, Azad Islamic Univesity, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran
author
Jamshid
Mazaheri
Department of language and persian litrature, Faculty of Humanitites, Najafabad Branch, Azad Islamic Univesity, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran
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2013
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Shikārnāmeh-ye Malikshāhī (The Malikshāhī Book of Hunting) which is also known as Shikārnāmeh-ye Khusrawī, is a book prepared in the 5th AH/11th AD century by Malikshāh’s order and Niẓām al-Mulk’s patronage. The book’s actual redaction is due to abū al-Ḥassan Niyshābūrī. This book refers to many other books on Falconry and Hunting (Bāznāmeh and Shikārnāmeh) especially the translation of the “Shīkārnāmeh-ye Anūshīrawānī”. It includes an introduction on the history of the writings about hunting in Iran till the 5th century and two part about training and treatment of birds of prey and other hunting animals. Unfortunately, due to some mistakes in manuscripts catalogues, this work, which is one of the most important scientific texts of the Seljuk period, remains unpublished. In this paper, we make a survey of different aspects of this work and introduce three manuscripts which exist in Iranian libraries.
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
123
138
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54691_f6516b14b5197d3aa7b58e330b5ba21f.pdf
The Theologian and the Mathematician: Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī and the Geometrical Works of Ibn al-Haytham
Hossein
Masoumi Hamedani
Permanent Member of Persian Academy of Language and Litrature
author
text
article
2013
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Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, theologian and philosopher of the 12th centuriy (1148-1209), has a huge literary production in many scholary disciplines of his time. Nothwithstanding some original ideas which are mostly found in his theological and philosophical writings, most of his other works are compilations based on other sources. Some of these sources still exist, while most of the others seem to have been lost forever. Research on the the relation between al-Rāzī and his sources can explicate the way he chose his sources and the degree in which he transformed them. In this paper some of the mathematical themes borrowed by al-Rāzī from the works of Ibn al-Haytham, the great mathematician and physicist of the 10th – 11th century, are analysed and the way he has changed and adapted them to his purposes is discussed. This research can shed a light on the intellectual relations between different types of researchers – theologians, philosophers, and scientists of this important period in the intellectual history of the Islamic civilization. It can also show how the work of Ibn al-Haytham was received in the cultural domain of Iran almost one and a half century after his death.
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
139
157
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54692_0a9eb5b649ae2487f7ab194e5255b02e.pdf
English Abstracts
text
article
2013
per
Tarikh-e Elm
پژوهشکده تاریخ علم دانشگاه تهران
1735-0573
11
v.
1
no.
2013
1
4
https://jihs.ut.ac.ir/article_54693_ac3f02822a369e6575447ca41d4884f8.pdf