کوهن، تاریخ‌نگاری و انقلاب علمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مطالعات علم موسسه پژوهشی حکمت و فلسه ایران

چکیده

مورخان امروزه علم در بارۀ مفهوم انقلاب علمی تردیدهای فراوانی کرده‌اند. در این مقاله به بررسی مفهوم انقلاب علمی در نزد کوهن و بررسی دو چالش مهم تاریخ‌نگاری علم می‌پردازیم. چالش اول ناظر به ناآشنا بودن مقولۀ انقلاب برای بازیگران قرن هفدهم است. چالش دوم مبهم بودن معیارهای تشخیص انقلاب است. واژۀ انقلاب در مورد تحول اساسی در فلسفۀ طبیعی قرن هفدهم معیارهای تاریخ‌نگاران را برآورده نمی‌سازد. با وجود این به نظر می‌رسد که بتوان از آن به مثابۀ استعاره‌ای مفید در بیان تحولات قرن هفدهم استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Kuhn, the Scientific Revolution and Historiography of Science

نویسنده [English]

  • Amirehsan Karbasizadeh
Department of Science Studies, Iranian Institute of Philosophy
چکیده [English]

Revolution is an essential element of Kuhn's analysis of the evolution of science. Inspired by Koyré and his contemporary philosophers and historians, Kuhn depicts history of science as epochs of different paradigms separated by big revolutions. In the light of new historiography of science, Historians themselves voice substantial grounds for unease about the coherence and historical validity of the notion of a Scientific Revolution and thereby casting doubts on revolutions in science generally. They note how local and specialized studies of the sciences in the period have led to "impatience" with the grand narrative of Thomas Kuhn. Contrary to what Kuhn believes, recent studies undermine notions of a unitary revolution conceived in terms of transformation of methodology and metaphysical presupposition or of massive advance in knowledge achieved on many disciplinary fronts. Despite this grand skepticism, I will argue that revolution remains to be an appropriate metaphor specially in the historical narrative of the seventeenth century.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Historiography
  • Kuhn
  • Paradigm
  • Scientific revolution
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