عنوان مقاله [English]
The Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles (PIIs) was first proposed by Leibniz. In this principle, he argued when two objects can be considered Indiscernible, and when two objects can be considered discernible. This principle, that is known as one of the most widely used and discussed principles in mathematics, physics, philosophy, and metaphysics, is increasingly applied when the modern physics and metaphysics deal with quantum particles, giving rise to an under-determination that has been studied from different approaches by different philosophers. Relying on some examples such as Kant’s water Drop, and black’s Spheres, some tried to reject this principle. The present study was an attempt to investigate the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles based on Muller's defense (an article published in 2015). In his paper, Muller draws on some examples to define and formulate his arguments. In the present study, the Black’s Spheres is studied, and attempts are made to determine whether Muller's argument is defendable, and introduce the points that need to be taken into account about this example
Allaire, E.B. (1970). “Another Look at Bare Particulars.” Philosophical Studies, vol. 16, pp. 30-35.
Andersen, Fredrik and Becker Arenhart, Jonas R. (2016). “Metaphysics Within Science: Against Radical Naturalism.” Metaphilosophy, vol. 47 (2), pp. 159-180.
French, S., Krause, D. (2006). Identity in Physics: A Historical, Philosophical and Formal Analysis. Oxford: Claren-don Press.
French, S., Redhead, M.L.G. (1988). “Quantum Physics and the Identity of Indiscernibles.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 39, pp. 233–246.
Hawley, K. (2009). “Identity and Indiscernibility.” Mind, vol. 118, pp. 102–119.
Ladyman, James, Ross, Don, and Spurrett, David. (2007). “In defence of scientism.” in James Ladyman (ed.), Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford University Press.
Loux, W. J. (2001). The Ontological Structure of Concrete Particulars. in Metaphysics, Contemporary Reading, first published. Rutledge.
Muller, F.A., Saunders, S.W. (2008). “Discerning Fermions.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 59, pp. 499–548.
Muller, F.A., Seevinck, M.P. (2009). “Discerning Elementary Particles.” Philosophy of Science, vol. 76, pp. 179–200.
Muller, F.A. (2015). “The Rise of Relationals.” Mind Magazin, vol. 124, pp. 201-237.
Psillos, (2012). “Causal descriptivism and the reference of theoretical terms.” Perception, Realism, and the Problem of Reference. Cambridge University Press.
Quine, W.v.O. (1976). “Grades of Discriminability.” Journal of Philosophy, vol. 73, pp. 113–116
Saunders, S. (2006). “Are quantum particles objects?” Analysis, vol. 66, pp. 52–63.