عنوان مقاله [English]
During the 13 centuries from Galen’s death to the beginning of the 16th century, the world faced a drastic political change which resulted in changing the medical sciences status, therefore medical science papers were written in diverse languages such as Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian.
The Talmudic physicians, while accepting the Galen’s sphygmology could differentiate artery and vein and perhaps recognize the heart hypertrophy and failure.
R?z? writing his monographs in Arabic, described a patient with aortic insufficiency (not under this name) and perhaps to be claimed that he, before Ibn Naf?s, somehow had been familiar with pulmonary circulation and diseases with signs of myocardial infarction and Madj?s? Ahw?z? was also familiar with this condition.
Ibn S?n? talking about the continuation of heart beat after animal’s death describes pericarditis. Gurg?n? had similar ideas, and then Ibn Naf?s clearly disputed Galen’s ideas about the holes in the heart septum and correctly described the coronary and pulmonary circulations.