عنوان مقاله [English]
The alchemist Muʾyid al-Dīn Ṭughrāʾī (Born in 1061), in two chapters of a treatise to him, entitled Keys of Mercy and Secret of Wisdom (Mafātīḥ al-Raḥma wa Asrār al-Ḥikma) explains the concepts of “composition” and “de-composition”. These concepts, alongside two other concepts of “compounding” and “de-compounding”, are the principle concepts of Ṭughrāʾī’s alchemy. Any process which transforms alchemical, physical or mechanical properties of Materials (Metals), needs decomposition and composition. Ṭughrāī’s account of these two is unique and more detailed than those found in earlier alchemical texts. Moreover, Ṭughrāʾī defines some empirical concepts that can be quantified and measured. This paper contains a review of Ṭughrāʾī’s definition, explanations and division of these concepts based on the treatise Keys of mercy and Secret of Wisdom and tries to underline his innovations in conceptualization.