شاخص اسطرلاب خطی شرف‌الدین طوسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه مک گیل

چکیده

اگر چه چندین رساله در بارۀ اسطرلاب خطی، ابداع شرف‌الدین طوسی (شکوفایی حدود 576ق)، به‌دست ما رسیده، هیچ‌کدام به‌طور شایسته‌ای بررسی نشده است. در نتیجه یکی از مهم‌ترین جنبه‌های این ابزار یعنی شاخص تعبیه شده در آن به کلی ناشناخته مانده است. بر اساس بررسی همۀ متون بر جای مانده در بارۀ عملکرد این ابزار، این مقاله به بررسی شاخص اسطرلاب خطی که در حقیقت جایگزینی برای دوایر سمت در اسطرلاب مسطح بوده، می‌پردازد. همچنین با بررسی شواهد تاریخی ما نقش احتمالی کمال‌الدین ابن یونس (درگذشته در 639ق)، شاگرد شرف‌الدین طوسی را در تکمیل این ابزار مطالعه می‌کنیم. در انتهای این مقاله پس از بررسی همۀ نسخه‌های خطی شناخته شده از متون مرتبط با اسطرلاب خطی، تصحیح و ترجمۀ انگلیسی یکی از این متون، و تصحیح بخش‌هایی از یکی دیگر از آنها در بارۀ شاخص اسطرلاب خطی ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Gnomonic Application of Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī’s Linear Astrolabe

نویسنده [English]

  • Sajjad Nikfahm Khubravan
McGill University
چکیده [English]

The linear astrolabe was invented by Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (fl. c. 1180) and although several Arabic monographs on the subject have reached us, none have received sufficient scholarly attention. As a result, one of the most important features of Ṭūsī’s invention, the gnomonic application, remains unknown. Based on an analysis of all known monographs on the linear astrolabe, this paper will discuss the gnomonic application of the linear astrolabe, which is an alternative to the azimuth lines typical of the plane astrolabe. We will also consider the potential role of Ṭūsī’s pupil, Kamāl al-Dīn ibn Yūnus (d. 1242), in the improvement of this instrument. Finally, after surveying the available manuscript copies of the above-mentioned monographs, we present a full edition and translation of one such text and an edition and translation of one chapter, on the gnomonic application, from another text.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • astrolabe
  • Gnomon
  • Kamāl al-Dīn Ibn Yūnus
  • Linear astrolabe
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī
  • sundial
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