طبیعی‌دان‌های اروپایی و شبکۀ تجارت منابع گیاهی شرق مدیترانه و اقیانوس هند در قرن 16م/10ق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در قرن 16م/10ق، گسترش خطوط تجاری و پدیدآیی ارتباط مستقیم سیاسی و تجاری میان کشورهای اروپایی و سرزمین‌های آسیایی، سبب افزایش تعاملات فرهنگی و بده بستان میان نظام‌های مختلف دانشِ آسیایی و اروپایی شد. یکی از وجوه مهم این تعامل فرهنگی را می‌توان در انتقال دانش در باب مواد طبیعی، به‌ویژه گونه‌های گیاهی، بین علمای محلی و اطبا/گیاه‌شناسان اروپایی مشاهده کرد. این مقاله، با معرفی سلسلۀ گیاه‌شناسان اروپایی قرن 16م که به دانش طبیعی در بارۀ اقیانوس هند پرداخته‌اند، سعی در روشن کردن وجوه اصلی این بده بستان علمی دارد. بر این اساس، دو دستۀ اصلی مؤلفان معرفی شده‌اند: آن‌ها که با حضور در محیط اقیانوس هند به‌واسطۀ شبکۀ تجاری سیاسی پرتغال که در این قرن در منطقه غالب بود، دسترسی مستقیم به منابع گیاهی داشتند و مؤلفانی که در اروپا و به‌واسطۀ داده‌های منتقل شده از طریق شبکه‌های تجاری به انتشار اطلاعات طبیعت‌شناسانه از آسیا می‌پرداختند. این نوشته نشان می‌دهد که چگونه در قرن 16م، با افزایش اطلاعات مستقیم از گونه‌های گیاهی محلی، دوره‌ای انتقالی در دانش گیاه‌شناسی بود که در آن از تأثیر دانش علمای قدیم، به‌ویژه اطبای مسلمان کاسته شد. امری که هم حاصل کسب اطلاعات دقیق‌تر از گونه‌های گیاهی بود و هم شناسایی بسیاری از گونه‌های دیگری که علمای قدیم معرفی نکرده بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The European Naturalists and the Commercial Network of Plant Resources in the 16th AD/10th AH Century

نویسنده [English]

  • Ashkan Avali Pouryan
Archaeology, Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The formation of international trade network and the development of direct political relationship between the European and Asian nations in the 16th centuries was one of the main reasons for increase in cultural and scientific interaction in this period. One of the most important parts of this interaction was the exchange of knowledge about natural resources, especially the local flora. This article, by introducing the natural historians who wrote about the Indian Ocean flora, tries to clarify the fundamental aspects of this scientific interaction. Based on this premise, this article introduces two groups of scholars: those who directly took part in this scientific intercourse and those who use the data which were transferred to the Europe. Through commercial networks. This study demonstrates that the more correct description of the flora and also discovering the new species led to the gradual decline of the Classic and Muslim’s natural history’s influence on the botanical knowledge of 16th and 17th centuries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • European Naturalists
  • Plant Resources
  • the 16th Century
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