نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 مربی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران
2 دانشیار، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران
3 گروه فلسفه هنر، دانشکده مطالعات علوم نظری و مطالعات عالی هنر
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most controversial topics in Islamic art and architecture is the influence of descriptive methods and the discussions in mathematical treatises on the motifs and geometrical decorations. Some researchers believe that the descriptive method and the continuation of these motifs among artists and architects were transmitted orally generation by generation and they had no connection to the instructions in mathematical treatises. On the other hand, others believe that the geometrical constructions in art and architecture have been borrowed from the descriptive discussions in mathematical treatises. The study of the structure of the decorations cited by each group shows that these patterns have been illustrated based on two completely distinct structures. The purpose of this study was to examine these different structures and explore their relationship with mathematical treatises and their developments. In this regard, on the one hand, the study examined the patterns that have been imported to Islamic art from other civilizations and have become popular among the artists and architects, on the other hand, it studied a set of patterns in Islamic art that have been formed in a new structure related to mathematical treatises. It appears that the beginning point of the latter structure was historically and geographically where the first geometrical treatises on descriptive patterns were formed: the translation of mathematical treatises on compass geometry in third century AH. This study aimed to find the relationship between the formation and spread of treatises on compass geometry and different geometrical constructions in the architecture of Samarra, the capital of Islamic caliphate in the third century AH. This qualitative study was descriptive-analytical and the data were collected by library research. The results of the study showed that simultaneous with the attention given to compass geometry in mathematical treatises, the descriptive method and the resulting patterns were used as a new model of descriptive patterns along with the decorations based on the older structure. The flourishing of this new geometrical structure and the development of compass geometry in mathematical treatises led to a geometrical genre known as the Seljuk “Gereh” in the fourth and fifth centuries AH.